Viral infections are among the main causes of morbidity and mortality of humans; sensitive and specific diagnostic methods for the rapid identification of viral pathogens are required. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is one of the most promising techniques for routine analysis due to its excellent sensitivity, simple and low-cost instrumentation and minimal required sample preparation. The outstanding sensitivity of SERS is achieved due to tiny nanostructures which must be assembled before or during the analysis. As for specificity, it may be provided using recognition elements. Antibodies, complimentary nucleic acids and aptamers are the most usable recognition elements for virus identification. Here, SERS-based biosensors for virus identification with oligonucleotides as recognition elements are reviewed, and the potential of these biosensors is discussed.